Kidney stones (also called renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.
Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.
Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they’re recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.
A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters — the tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:
- Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
- Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
- Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating
Other signs and symptoms may include:
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills if an infection is present
Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.
TYPES OF KIDNEY STONES
Knowing the type of kidney stone you have helps determine its cause, and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones. If possible, try to save your kidney stone if you pass one so that you can bring it to your doctor for analysis.
Types of kidney stones include:
- Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance made daily by your liver or absorbed from your diet. Certain fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate content.
Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine.
Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate. This type of stone is more common in metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis. It may also be associated with certain medications used to treat migraines or seizures, such as topiramate (Topamax, Trokendi XR, Qudexy XR).
- Struvite stones. Struvite stones form in response to a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
- Uric acid stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who lose too much fluid because of chronic diarrhea or malabsorption, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
- Cystine stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of a specific amino acid.
Factors that increase your risk of developing kidney stones include:
- Family or personal history. If someone in your family has had kidney stones, you’re more likely to develop stones, too. If you’ve already had one or more kidney stones, you’re at increased risk of developing another.
- Dehydration. Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm, dry climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
- Certain diets. Eating a diet that’s high in protein, sodium (salt) and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones.
- Obesity. High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.
- Digestive diseases and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the amounts of stone-forming substances in your urine.
- Other medical conditions such as renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism and repeated urinary tract infections also can increase your risk of kidney stones.
- Certain supplements and medications, such as vitamin C, dietary supplements, laxatives (when used excessively), calcium-based antacids, and certain medications used to treat migraines or depression, can increase your risk of kidney stones.
If your doctor suspects that you have a kidney stone, you may have diagnostic tests and procedures, such as:
- Blood testing. Blood tests may reveal too much calcium or uric acid in your blood. Blood test results help monitor the health of your kidneys and may lead your doctor to check for other medical conditions.
- Urine testing. The 24-hour urine collection test may show that you’re excreting too many stone-forming minerals or too few stone-preventing substances. For this test, your doctor may request that you perform two urine collections over two consecutive days.
- Imaging. Imaging tests may show kidney stones in your urinary tract. High-speed or dual energy computerized tomography (CT) may reveal even tiny stones. Simple abdominal X-rays are used less frequently because this kind of imaging test can miss small kidney stones.
Ultrasound, a noninvasive test that is quick and easy to perform, is another imaging option to diagnose kidney stones.
- Analysis of passed stones. You may be asked to urinate through a strainer to catch stones that you pass. Lab analysis will reveal the makeup of your kidney stones. Your doctor uses this information to determine what’s causing your kidney stones and to form a plan to prevent more kidney stones.
- Best Homeopathic treatment for Renal Stone: If someone suffered from real stone then Homeopathic medicine is the best friend for those patients . Some of the most important Homeopathic medicine used in renal stone treatment is.
- 1.Berberis Vulgaris: This is head remedy for real colic. Due to the stone patient fell pain in left side I the kidney region, and the pain starting from left kidney ureter, then to urinary bladder and coming down to urethra. The patient fell numbness, bubbling, stiffness, lameness, and painful pressure in kidney region. The patient fell violent sticking pain in the bladder extending from kidney to urethra with urging to urinate.
In acute condition the pain is more severe. There may be haematuria with soreness urethra. In this condition the character of urine may be bloody, greenish with thick slimy mucus and jelly like sediment.
In chronic condition the urine may be dark, turbid with copious sedimentation. Urine is very slow to flow with constant urging.
2. Ocimum can: This remedy indicating when patient fell agonising pain, twist about, screams and groans, urine red with brick dust sediment.
3. Sarsaparilla: This is an excellent remedy for the renal stone . There is sever, almost unbearable pain at the conclusion of urination just as urine ceases to flow. There is excruciating pain from right kidney to downwards.
4. Some times child also suffers from renal stone this tie this medicine work wonderful, when child screams and cries before during passing urine due to pain caused by the passage of small stone .
Urine may be scanty or copious,bloody or bright and clear, but irritating; flaky and sandy; passes without any sensation.
5. Eupatorium purpureum: This medicine has to be used when there is a considerable amount of gravel deposit in the urine, dull pain in the renal region and mixed with mucus and also urinary tenesmus.
6. Galium aparine: It acts on the urinary organs; is a diuretic to use in dropsies, gravel and calculi.
7. Cantharis: This is one of the best remedies during the paroxysm of renal colic. Patient urging to urinate before, during after micturition. Only a few drops of urine pass at a time. Burning during urination is always present. Oversenstiveness of part is well marked.
Along with above medicine there are many other medicine which is use in renal stone treatment as:
- Nux Vom is use when real colic due to indigestion, it should be use in hot water, pain may be in any part.
- Nitric acid should be thought of when the urine contains oxalic acid.
- Urtica urens shoud be use when tendency to stone and uric acid in the tissue, gouty subjects.
- Sepia is used when red adhesive sand in urine which is very offensive.
- Thlaspi bursa pastoris is used when found renal and vesicle irritation. Frequent, urine heavy, phosphatic. Brick dust sediment, violent colic.